Current and future Air Pollution management – Perspectives on new sensor technologies (2018)

Name of course:
Current and future Air Pollution management – Perspectives on new sensor technologies (2018)


ECTS credits:
6


Course parameters:
Language: English
Level of course: PhD course
Time of year: The course will take place as a summer school during 3rd to 7th September 2018
No. of contact hours/hours in total incl. preparation, assignment(s) or the like [please indicate both]: The course includes preparation by reading material of about 25h, 40h lectures, preparation and presentation of a poster concerning own research of about 10h, solving exercises related to the lectures of about 75h, hands on sensor exercise at the course 10h. Total work load about 160h.
Capacity limits: The course has a capacity limit of about 20 participants


Objectives of the course:
The objective of the course is to introduce the students to state-of-the-art in low cost sensors for air pollution measurements, and to do so in light of possibilities and shortcomings. In order to set the scene, the course will include an introduction to the physical and chemical processes governing air pollution loads and levels in the ambient environment. Likewise, on introductory level, the students will receive a basic understanding of the applied routine measuring techniques and transport-chemistry models used in state-of-the-art research and management of air quality and the associated effects on health and environment. The course will include training of the students’ in presenting research in the form of posters and short oral presentations at international workshops and conferences.


Learning outcomes and competences:
At the end of the course, the student should be able to:

  • Understand governing processes for air pollution loads and levels
  • Discuss impact of air pollution on health, environment and climate
  • Know the common strategies in current air pollution assessments
  • Understand the pros and cons of sensor technologies versus analytical measurements
  • Select a monitoring strategy for various types of air pollution assessments
  • Discuss the strengths and weakness of various low-cost sensor technologies
  • Understand the basic approaches for data analysis for low-cost sensor systems
  • Interpret results from various measurements devices


Compulsory programme:
The lecturing takes place as a five days intensive course. Prior to the course the student are expected to have read the listed literature. Also prior to the course, the students are expected to prepare posters showing their research. During two of the evenings at the course the students are expected to present these posters to each other in posters in two poster sessions. During the course, the students will form groups, and carry out measurements with low-cost sensor devices and prepare a short report about these measurements. After the course, the students need to produce a written report with essays on various topics as well as all calculation exercises from the course. Exercises may be solved in hand, by excel or by programming. In the material provided for the students there will be a short introduction to FORTRAN programming and links to a free of charge GFortran compiler. However, there are no demands regarding how the students solve the exercises given during the course. In the reports, the students are expected to add explanatory text to demonstrate their understanding of the exercises. Details on the exercises are given in the course description.


Background:
Air pollution monitoring of today is based on coarse networks equipped with advanced high cost devices with high accuracy. Low cost sensors are applied easily in situations where it is only important to know whether levels are low or high. However, low cost devices may also be used as a supplement to routine monitoring programs. The low costs can make it possible to perform high numbers of measurements, and the vast amount of data may to some extent compensate for lower quality. The latter may especially apply when measurements are combined with model calculations using chemistry-transport models. Such data are crucial in assessing the impact air pollution has on health, environment and climate. Air pollution has a variety of negative effects on climate, human health and nature. Climate is affected by releases to the atmosphere of particles and trace gases that change the radiation balance. Adverse health effects in the population are the result of short-term as well as long-term exposure to air pollution. Nature is affected by atmospheric deposition of acid gases and aerosols that in certain areas leads to acidification of lakes and terrestrial ecosystems. Loss of biodiversity may be the results of depositions that lead to eutrophication of sensitive terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure to ozone affects the growth of the vegetation, and makes it more vulnerable to other types of stress. WHO (2012) estimates that seven million premature deaths annually can be related to exposure to air pollution; about half of this due to ambient air pollution and the other half due to indoor air pollution. The premature deaths are in addition to a variety of other adverse health effects. EEA (2015) estimates that more than half of the European terrestrial ecosystems receive atmospheric nitrogen inputs that exceed the critical loads and therefore on the long-term may lead to loss of biodiversity. Eutrophication problems are common in coastal waters world-wide and in worst case situations leading to turnovers followed by death of fish and benthic fauna. Atmospheric nitrogen inputs have been shown to contribute 30% or more to many of these ecosystems. The course will have its main focus on pollution that may affect human health, but it will also introduce the students to effects on biodiversity and climate.

 

Course contents:
Session 1:
Introduction to air pollution. Lecturer: Professor Ole Hertel AU. 1A). This lecture will provide the students a basic introduction to air pollution. What is air pollution? What are the sources, and what kind of effects does it have on climate, health and environment? How do we abate the negative impacts? The student will be introduced to Integrated Monitoring - combining measurements and model calculations, Air quality guidelines, national emission ceilings (NEC) as well as other national and international agreements. The student will be introduced to air pollution health studies and briefly to studies on impact on biodiversity in sensitive ecosystems. This introduction will serve as an appetizer to the lectures that follow in the rest of the course. 1B) Health effects of air pollution are related to both short-term and long-term air pollution exposures. The students are introduced to the studies determining exposure – effect relationships applied in health effect assessments. Exposures may be determined on basis of routine monitoring data, local scale and personal exposure monitoring as well as by application of various air pollution models. Methodologies are described and recent results from exposure – effect relationships are presented. In 2009 a volcanic eruption on Iceland lead to substantial emissions of volcanic ash. The releases had substantial impact on European air traffic for many days. The lecture will discuss monitoring and modelling efforts with outset in the specific event but also making links to other episodes of natural/semi-natural particle emissions.  Agricultural air pollution contribute atmospheric nutrient loadings to terrestrial and marine ecosystems; the students will be introduced to assessment of these loadings. Agricultural air pollution contribute also to particle pollution; the student will be introduced to current knowledge on health effects related to agricultural air pollution.

Exercises: The students will be asked to produce an essay of 2-3 pages on the main air pollution issues in their home countries.


Session 2:
VOCs – relevance for outdoor and indoor air quality, impact on health and well-being. Lecturer: Professor Andreas Schütze, Saarland University. The participants receive a basic introduction to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and their relevance for outdoor and especially indoor air quality. VOC measurements are becoming ever more important due to stringent environmental regulations and increasing health concerns. Typical compounds with high health relevance are benzene, formaldehyde and tetrachloroethylene; in addition, VOCs are also highly relevant for odour nuisance monitoring. However, VOCs present a very diverse and complicated spectrum, both in terms of effects and relevant concentrations and also concerning their measurement. The presentation will provide an overview of analytical techniques and discuss future challenges for monitoring. 

Exercises: The students will be asked to provide an essay of max. 2 pages on one specific VOC that is of concern for environmental monitoring.


Session 3:
Air pollution meteorology – impact on transport, deposition and dispersion. Lecturer: Professor Ole Hertel AU. The participants receive a basic introduction to turbulence and dispersion in the atmosphere, which is fundamental for understanding the dispersion and transport of air pollutants. Special focus will be on the boundary layer processes, atmospheric stability, mechanical and thermal turbulence, atmospheric radiation balance, vertical profiles in the basic meteorological parameters like wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure and humidity. Furthermore, the course will introduce the students to local wind circulation systems like urban heat island, mountain – valley circulations and land - sea breezes. Examples will be presented, on how such local wind circulations affect the local pollution levels in various regions.

Exercises: The students will solve exercises that demonstrate the impact of atmospheric stability on local dispersion conditions.


Session 4:
Atmospheric Chemistry – homogeneous and heterogeneous transformation in the atmosphere. Lecturer: Professor Ole Hertel AU. This session provides an introduction to the fundamental atmospheric chemistry. This includes the daytime hydroxyl-radical chemistry and the night time nitrate-radical chemistry, as well as the nitrogen oxide chemistry and the chain reactions leading to the formation of photo-oxidants. The students will be introduced to the possible reactions when air masses are leaving street canyons into the urban background and further what happens in the urban plumes down-wind from the urban area. The session will furthermore provide an introduction to heterogeneous chemistry where gas phase compounds react on various surfaces including the surface of atmospheric particles. The students will hear about the impact of road dust resuspension, wood smoke particles and other anthropogenic and semi-anthropogenic particles, but also natural particles generated from sea spray, dessert dust, cloud, and rain and fog droplets and how these affect chemical transformations. Some aerosol particles are anthropogenic and emitted with the exhaust gases from traffic or in the plume from power plants and other industries where as others are formed from the condensation of gaseous pollutants. Other particles are the result of natural emissions by sea spray processes over the oceans, wind-blown dust (e.g. from deserts), and bio-aerosols emitted by the biosphere. Particles emitted by biomass burning can either be of anthropogenic or natural origin depending on if the fires were natural or not. This session module will introduce the students to the basic physical and chemical processes governing the fate of atmospheric particles in the atmosphere. A detailed understanding of particle number size distributions will be given, and processes that include nucleation, condensation, coagulation, evaporation, and deposition will be explained and followed by a discussion of sources and sinks of particles in the atmosphere.

Exercises: The students will solve exercises related to the chemical transformations in the atmosphere. The students will work with log-distributions used in the presentation of particle measurements of mass and number concentrations.


Session 5:
Ambient air measurements – Air Quality monitoring, integrated monitoring, field studies, and personal exposure monitoring. Lecturers: Professor Ole Hertel, AU. This session will introduce the students to the most common techniques currently applied in routine monitoring including integrated monitoring where measurements are combined with model calculations. The measurement techniques include remote sensing, automatic monitoring, but also techniques that involve analysis in the laboratory like sampling on filters and application of passive samplers. The students will be introduced to quality control and quality assurance. The students will be presented for photos for typical monitoring sites. Various techniques are applied field studies of air pollutants. This session will introduce the students to the most common techniques currently available in process studies of air pollution, and to how the field studies are often linked up to and taking advantage of routine monitoring and modelling. The students will be introduced to differences in setup of field studies in various environments.

Exercises: The students will write an essay (2-3 pages) on air quality monitoring in their home country – current issues and perspectives in air quality loads and levels. Combined with session 1


Session 6:
Gas sensor principles – materials, technology, functionality. Lecturer: Professor Andreas Schütze, Saarland University. This session will introduce various gas sensor principles with focus on low-cost and portable solutions: non-dispersive Infrared absorption, electrochemical, pellistors, semiconductor gas sensors (metal-oxide, conducting polymer, field effect devices) and mass-sensitive devices. Advantages and disadvantages of the various sensor principles as well as research challenges will be discussed with respect to sensitivity, selectivity and stability of sensors and measurement systems. The lecture will also discuss gas sensor testing and calibration with a special focus on the challenges posed by the very low concentrations (sub-ppm and ppb level) relevant for environmental monitoring.  

Exercises: Students will be asked to discuss either one specific gas sensor function principle, its advantages and disadvantages as well as research challenges or advantages and disadvantages of various gas sensor test bed realizations in a brief essay. In this, they should reflect their own research and compare the materials and methods used to other approaches described in the relevant literature.


Session 7:
Air pollution modelling from local scale to long-range transport – regional scale and hemispheric scale modelling, plume models, urban scale and CFD, street pollution modelling, and human exposure assessment. Lecturer: Professor Ole Hertel AU. The students will be introduced to Lagrangian and Eulerian models of long-range transport. The most common parameterisations of the physical and chemical processes as well as the applied numerical techniques will be outlined. The students will be introduced to nested grid techniques in current state-of-the-art Eulerian models like WRF-Chem and the Danish DEHM. The session will include model validation studies, interpretation of results as well as estimation of uncertainties. The students will be introduced to the basic principles behind urban scale models, plume models, and Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. The most common parameterisations of the physical and chemical processes as well as the applied numerical techniques will be outlined. The session will include model validation studies, interpretation of results as well as estimation of uncertainties. The session will include examples of results from research and monitoring and assessment studies. The students will be introduced to the basic principles behind street pollution modelling and human exposure assessment. The most common parameterisations of the physical and chemical processes as well as the applied numerical techniques will be outlined. The session will include model validation studies, interpretation of results as well as estimation of uncertainties.

Exercises: The students will solve exercises related to the differences between the concept of Eulerian and Lagrangian models. The student will perform calculations using simple plume models and calculations related to the nitrogen chemistry parameterisation in the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) for urban street pollution.


Session 8:
Gas measurement systems – data analysis and system integration. Lecturer Professor Andreas Schütze, Saarland University. The limited performance of low-cost sensors, especially concerning selectivity, can be overcome by multi-sensor systems combined with advanced signal analysis methods. Initially the session will briefly discuss data-driven analysis and modelling, and its differences from deterministic modelling. Then the session will introduce different approaches for sensor arrays and virtual multi-sensors as well as typical methods for signal processing based on pattern recognition, e.g. statistical methods like PCA or LDA, artificial neural networks, etc. The session will also address miniaturized analytical approaches and their combination with sensor technology for advanced environmental monitoring. Finally, an example for indoor air quality assessment based on selective detection and quantification of hazardous VOCs with a miniaturized integrated gas measurement system will be given. 

Exercises: Students will solve classification and quantification problems based on existing data sets using statistical data analysis based on the MatLab toolbox DAV³E.


Session 9:
Examples of low-cost sensor networks for air pollution monitoring – fixed and mobile sensor nodes, monitoring of gas, particles and odour. Lecturers professor Ole Hertel, professor Andreas Schütze, professor Kostas Karatzas. In recent years, various studies have been performed on air quality assessment and environmental monitoring with low-cost sensors. This session will introduce some exemplary projects and discuss the approach used, the main results and lessons learned as well as future challenges. The examples will show different targets, various sensor technologies and sensor nodes being used as well as different strategies for achieving high spatial and temporal resolution. This session should increase the awareness of the participants for the diversity of applications and for the complex interplay of technologies, calibration and data analysis strategies. 

Exercises: No specific exercises for this lecture.


Session 10:
Data-oriented analysis and modelling for air quality control. Lecturer: Professor Kostas Karatzas. This session will provide with basic knowledge on data analysis (descriptive statistics, trend analysis), and will explain multivariate correlation analysis and periodicity identification with the aid of FFT. Then it will move towards computational intelligence methods, elaborating on regression and classification approaches and making use of Decision Trees-Random Forests as well as Artificial Neural Networks for modelling. Self Organizing Maps will be introduced for data investigations and profiling.

Exercises: Students will be asked to deliver solutions for exercises on AQ microsensor dataset modelling.


Session 11:
Gas sensors in your smartphone, from a drone, in your car and your ventilation system  – potential future applications. Lecturer professor Andreas Schütze. This teaching session will give an outlook of possible future applications for air quality monitoring based on emerging technologies. This will include integration of gas and particle sensors in mobile phones, on flying platforms as well as other IoT (Internet of Things) approaches. The presentation will include a discussion of the pros and cons of various products already on the market and further ideas that have been outlined. Students should critically reflect the state-of-the-art in sensors and systems compared to the requirements of the envisaged application.    

Exercises: Students will be asked to develop an application idea based on low-cost sensor technology with relevance to environment, health, climate or beyond. This exercise should be taken in small teams of 2-4 students to cover different aspects from technology to financing. 5-8h


Session 12:
From AQ data to personalized Quality of Life (QoL) Information services. Lecturer: professor Kostas Karatzas. The availability of AQ information (resulting from monitoring networks, modelling and nowadays from embedded micro-sensors) has generated a pool of information that may be explored towards the creation of personalized, QoL information services. Participating students will be asked to work on the design of mockups for (i) a web-based information portal and on (ii) a personalized app for smartphones, making use of any type of available information related to AQ, including Earth Observation data, EEA archived data, local monitoring network data, modelling outputs etc. Special emphasis will be put on personal exposure and on “green city routes”.

Exercises: Students will be asked to deliver a small report with “home town experience” on AQ related information services and on their favourite apps related to the environment. Combined with 11.


Session 13:
Citizen Science for AQ monitoring and control. Lecturer: professor Kostas Karatzas. Citizen participation in the conduction of scientific measurements or computation and in the production of first line or complementary scientific knowledge has been gaining ground and popularity. Students will learn about CA principles and initiatives in Europe and will focus on CS projects which are directly related to AQ science.

Exercises: A structured literature review of AQ related CS projects, initiatives, products and apps will be conducted. The aim will be to prepare and submit a joined review paper to a relevant journal.


Session 14:
From physical to chemical and then to biological weather. Lecturer: professor Kostas Karatzas, professor Ole Hertel, professor Andreas Schütze, PhD student Yulia Olsen

The idea is to introduce biological weather and specifically aeroallergens. Similarities and differences with chemical air pollutants will be addressed. The session will introduce the lack of regulatory framework as a gap in atmospheric management, and will provide information on pollen levels vs symptom loads. Pollen season start and peak pollen period start and end periods will be introduced and explained.

Exercises: Analysis of pollen and fungal spore levels. Comparison with symptoms.

 

Prerequisites:
The participants need to have a background in natural science at MSc level, but otherwise no prerequisites.


Name of lecturers:

 

Type of course/teaching methods:
The course includes class lectures, theoretical and practical exercises, preparation and presentation of posters, and preparation of a report with a series of essays and theoretical exercises.

 

Literature:

  • Fenger, J. and Tjell, J.C. (Eds), 2009: Air pollution – form a global to a local perspective. 488 p.  Polyteknisk Forlag/RSC Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84755-865-7. (cost about 450DKK).
  • Hertel, O., Ellermann, T., Palmgren, F., Berkowicz, R., Løfstrøm, P., Frohn, L.M., Geels, C., Skjøth, C.A., Brandt, J., Christensen, J., Kemp, K., and Ketzel, M., 2007: Integrated Air Quality Monitoring – Combined use of measurements and models in monitoring programmes, Environmental Chemistry, 4(2), 65-74.
  • Hertel, O., and Goodsite, M.E., 2009. Urban Air Pollution Climates Throughout the World, 1-22, In: Hester, R.E. and Harrison, R. (Eds): Air Quality in Urban Environments, In the series Issues in Environmental Science and Technology, vol 28, pp 148, RSC Publishing. http://www.rsc.org/ebooks/archive/free/BK9781847559074/BK9781847559074-00001.pdf
  • Hertel, O., Skjøth, C.A., Reis, S., Bleeker, A., Harrison, R., Cape, J.N., Fowler, D., Skiba, U., Simpson, D., Jickells, T., Kulmala, M., Gyldenkærne, S., Sørensen, L.L., Erisman, J.W., and Sutton, M., 2012. Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. BGD, 9, 9349-9423, dx.doi.org/10.5194/bgd-9-9349-2012. http://www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/9/9349/2012/bgd-9-9349-2012.html
  • Kakosimos, K., Hertel, O., Berkowicz, R., Ketzel, M., Jensen, S.S., and Hvidberg, M., 2010. The Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) – a review of performed validation studies. Environmental Chemistry, 7, 485-503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EN10070
  • Simpson, D., Benedictow, A., Berge, H., Bergström, R., Emberson, L. D., Fagerli, H., Hayman, G., Flechard, C., Gauss, M., Jonson, J. E., Jenkin, M. E., Nyiri, A., Richter, C., Semeena, V. S., Tsyro, S., Tuovinen J-P, Valdebenito, A., and Wind, P.,  The EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model -- technical description, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 12, 3781-3874, 2012.
  • Tørseth, K., Aas, W., Breivik, K., Fjæraa, A. M., Fiebig, M., Hjellbrekke, A. G., Myhr, C. L., and Yttri, K. E.,  Introduction to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and observed atmospheric composition change during 1972–2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5447-5481, 2012
  • Mahowald, Natalie; Ward, Daniel S.; Kloster, Silvia; et al., 2011. Aerosol Impacts on Climate and Biogeochemistry. Edited by: Gadgil, A; Liverman, DM. ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES, VOL 36  Book Series: Annual Review of Environment and Resources , 36, pp 45-74.
  • C. Borrego, A.M. Costa, J. Ginja , M. Amorim, M. Coutinho, K. Karatzas, Th. Sioumis, N. Katsifarakis, K. Konstantinidis, S. De Vito, E. Esposito, P. Smith, N. André, P. Gérard, L.A. Francis, N. Castell, P. Schneider, M. Viana, M.C. Minguillón, W. Reimringer, R.P. Otjes, O. von Sicard, R. Pohle, B. Elen, D. Suriano, V. Pfister, M. Prato, S. Dipinto, M. Penza, Assessment of air quality microsensors versus reference methods: The EuNetAir joint exercise, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 147, December 2016, 246 – 263.
  • Leidinger, M.; Sauerwald, T.; Reimringer, W.; Ventura, G.; Schütze, A. Selective detection of hazardous VOCs for indoor air quality applications using a virtual gas sensor array. J. Sens. Sens. Syst. 2014, 3, 253–263.
  • A. Schütze, T. Baur, M. Leidinger, W. Reimringer, R. Jung, T. Conrad, T. Sauerwald, Highly Sensitive and Selective VOC Sensor Systems Based on Semiconductor Gas Sensors: How to?; Environments 2017, 4, 20; doi: 10.3390/environments4010020
  • L. Spinelle, M. Gerboles, G. Kok, S. Persijn, T. Sauerwald: Review of Portable and Low-Cost Sensors for the Ambient Air Monitoring of Benzene and Other Volatile Organic Compounds; MPDI Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1520; doi: 10.3390/s17071520
  • P. Reimann, A. Schütze, Sensor Arrays, Virtual Multisensors, Data Fusion, and Gas Sensor Data Evaluation; in: C.-D. Kohl, T. Wagner (eds.): Gas Sensing Fundamentals, Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Volume 15 2014.
  • N. Helwig, M. Schüler, C. Bur, A. Schütze, T. Sauerwald: Gas mixing apparatus for automated gas sensor characterization; Meas. Sci. Technol. 25 (2014) 055903 (9pp); doi: 10.1088/0957-0233/25/5/055903 - open access
  • Berger U., Karatzas K., Jaeger S., Voukantsis D., Sofiev M., Brandt O., Zuberbier T. and Bergmann K.C. (2013),  Personalized pollen-related symptom-forecast information services for allergic rhinitis patients in Europe, Allergy (68), pp. 963-965 DOI: 10.1111/all.12181
  • Karatzas K. (2009) Informing the public about atmospheric quality: air pollution and pollen, Allergo Journal 18, Issue 3/09, pp 212-217.
  • Zhu L., Karatzas K. and Lee L. (2009), Urban environmental information perception and multimodal communication: the air quality example, Multimodal Signals: Cognitive and Algorithmic Issues (Anna Esposito, Amir Hussain, Maria Marinaro, Raffaele Martone, eds.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 5398, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 288–299

Supplementary literature:

  • WIKI for Fortran at: http://fortranwiki.org/fortran/show/HomePage. A brief introduction to Fortran at: http://www.usm.uni-muenchen.de/people/puls/lessons/intro_general/f90_for_beginners.pdf, and we recommend you to check one of the various web sites with course material for learning to programme in Fortran – one example is: http://www-uxsup.csx.cam.ac.uk/courses/Fortran/index.html  where a full course may be downloaded.
  • Ayres, J., Maynard, R., and Richards, R.: 2006: Air Pollution and Health, 248 p., Imperial College Press. ISBN 1-86094-191-5 
  • Brimblecombe, P.: 1996: Air composition and Chemistry. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45366-6
  • Jacobs, D.: Introduction to Chemistry of the atmospheres. P. 263, Princeton University Press, http://acmg.seas.harvard.edu/people/faculty/djj/book/index.html 
  • Seinfeld, J.H. and Pandis, S.N.: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. From Air Pollution to Climate Change.1203 p.  John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-0-471-72018-8. 
  • Hertel, O., Reis, S., Skjøth, C.A., Bleeker, A., Harrison, R., Cape, J.N., Fowler, D., Skiba, U., Simpson, D., Jickells, T., Baker, A., Kulmala, M., Gyldenkærne, S., Sørensen, L.L., and Erisman, J.W., 2010. Chapter 9: Nitrogen turnover processes in the atmosphere, pp. 177-207, In: The European Nitrogen Assessment, Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives (Eds. Mark A. Sutton, Clare M. Howard, Jan Willem Erisman, Gilles Billen, Albert Bleeker, Peringe Grennfelt, Hans van Grinsven, and Bruna Grizzetti). 612 p. Cambridge University Press, http://www.nine-esf.org/sites/nine-esf.org/files/ena_doc/ENA_pdfs/ENA_c9.pdf 
  • Spinelle, L.; Gerboles, M.; Villani, M.G.; Aleixandre, M.; Bonavitacola, F. Field calibration of a cluster of low-cost available sensors for air quality monitoring. Part A: Ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2015, 215, 249–257. 
  • Spinelle, L.; Gerboles, M.; Villani, M.G.; Aleixandre, M.; Bonavitacola, F. Field calibration of a cluster of low-cost commercially available sensors for air quality monitoring. Part B: NO, CO and CO2. Sens. Actuators B Chem. 2017, 238, 706–715. 
  • M. Leidinger, C. Schultealbert, J. Neu, A. Schütze and T. Sauerwald: Characterization and calibration of gas sensor systems at ppb level—a versatile test gas generation system, Meas. Sci. Technol. 29 (2018) 015901 (10pp), doi: 10.1088/1361-6501/aa91da

 

Course homepage:
None


Course assessment:
The students will be preparing a report with a series of essays and theoretical exercises.

The students will receive a diploma after completing the course.


Provider:
This course is organised and carried out in close cooperation between the three universities:

  • Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Denmark
  • School of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Lab for measurement technology, Saarland University, Germany


Time:
3 – 7 September 2018


Place:
Sandbjerg Mansion
 

Registration:
Deadline for registration is 1 August 2018
For registration: https://auws.au.dk/Sandbjerg18_PhdCourse

 

The payment DKK 4846 covers:
Accomodation at Sandbjerg Mansion as well as full board during the whole course

If you have any questions, please contact Klaus Condé Christensen, e-mail: kcc@envs.au.dk

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